ADD and ADHD ( Page 1 )

What is ADD and ADHD?

ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), in and of the same disorders, are what have been termed: childhood mental disorders that are characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, academic underachievement, behavioral problems, or by a combination of these types of behavior. Inattention is characterized by distractibility, forgetfulness, not finishing tasks, and not appearing to listen. Hyperactivity and impulsivity are characterized by fidgeting and squirming, difficulty in remaining seated, excessive running and climbing, feelings of restlessness, difficulty awaiting one's turn, interrupting others, and excessive talking.  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) sets criteria that state these behaviors must interfere with academic, social, or work functioning, with impairment existing in at least two settings. It also states that the onset is before the age of seven, but can persist into adulthood. ADD was added to the DSM-IV in 1980.  ADHD was added to the manual in 1987.

The health industry typically states that ADD and ADHD are both biological disorders caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.  Since there is no test that the medical field can use to diagnosis these disorders, they use a symptom-based approach.  There is no test that will objectively prove the existence of these disorders, just a check list of symptoms to make the classification.  Therefore, how can it be called a chemical imbalance if there are no tests to prove this?  How can they ascribe a definition to the disorders if there is no unique identifiers?  A list of symptoms does not necessarily mean there is a disease.  Simply put, to make a diagnosis of ADD or ADHD, one must fit into the list of behaviors that have been observed by health care provider interviews or anecdotal evidence from family or school staff.

Many top thinkers in the medical fields feel that these two disorders are bogus. Some feel that they are made up conditions used as an excuse to sedate and control children. Some sources separate a list of symptoms between ADD and ADHD.  For example, ADD symptoms from one source include:  Difficulty managing time, distractibility, procrastination, forgetfulness, tendency to lose things, difficulty organizing or finishing tasks, absentmindedness, sloppy or impulsively done homework, lack of concentration, daily mood swings, and lack of goals.  One source for the symptoms of ADHD include:  problem adapting to new things, tendency to disturb other children, difficulty doing assignments or chores, temper tantrums, impatience or difficulty waiting, low tolerance for stress, clumsiness, tendency to talk too much, tendency to blurt out answers, failure in school despite high intelligence.  After seeing these two lists of symptoms, is there a reader out there that has not fit into one of these categories?  These lists are what everyone goes through in the process of growth.  Put a child on a baseball field, basketball court, or in front of a video game, they will not have a problem as listed above.  Lock a child up in a standard classroom for 8 hours and you will see a growing, curious mind become restless and bored.

Since many other disorders can mimic the symptoms of ADD and ADHD, it is important to rule out these conditions before placing a child on any medication.  Why? Because the medications used are extremely dangerous. Since there are so many children (and adults) diagnosed and placed on antidepressants, antipsychotics, Ritalin, etc., it is important to rule out other disorders that may mimic the two conditions, and to treat them properly.  It is important to treat the cause, not the symptom.



Mistaken for ADD and ADHD

This article will discuss some of the conditions that can appear similar to the symptoms used to diagnose ADD and ADHD.

Systemic Causes

Food allergies, the great mimic of many symptoms, is one of the most common causes of similar symptoms seen in ADD and ADHD.  Finding a food and removing it has had great success with many when trying to correct the symptoms of these two conditions.  Seasonal allergies have also been implicated in the mimicing of ADD and ADHD.  Allergens that can affect behavior include, but are not limited to:  dairy products, peanuts, certain grains, food dyes, grass and weed pollen, and animal dander.  The elimination of allergens is a great first place to start.

Systemic yeast infections (Candida albicans) can cause symptoms similar to those of ADD and ADHD.  Candida is an overgrowth of yeast, typically from the over use of antibiotics or the overconsumption of refined foods.  This can be exacerbated if the child has an underlying problem with carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes. Because Candida feeds off of sugar and refined foods, this can then lead to altered blood sugar levels, which can then lead to behavioral disturbances.  Candida infestations are very common in today’s population due to the content of heighly processed foods that are consumed.

Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) can stem from thyroid disorders, liver or pancreatic problems, adrenal gland abnormalities, or insufficiencies in the diet.  Hypoglycemic episodes can greatly affect behavior. 

Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism is an imbalance in metabolism that occurs from an overproduction or underproduction of thyroid hormones. This imbalance may cause a variety of disturbances in behavior.

Intestinal parasites can cause nutritional deficiencies which, in turn, can affect behavior.

Has your child been acting different ever since a sore throat?  Has he been moody, hyper, or continuously blinking his eyes (tic)?  There is an extremely rare disorder that the medical field has named PANDA.  It stands for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus.  It occurs in rare cases after a strep throat infections.  The body's defences are trying to attack the Streptococcal bacteria that has caused the sore throat, there is some degree of mistaken identity and it also attacks some parts of the brain (called an autoimmune attack).  The autoimmune attack is thought to happen in closely related parts of the brain, causing a range of behavioural and emotional problems.  Does this mean that is your child gets strep throat it will get PANDA?  No it doesn’t.  It is rare, but be aware of it.

Hearing and vision problems may have similar symptoms as ADD/ADHD if a child can't see or hear properly, it is particularly noticable in educational settings.  For example, Auditory processing Disorder ( APD) will sometimes occur in children who have had a history of ear infections and/or PE tubes (Pressure Equalization tubes). Symptoms include distractibility, inability to follow a set of verbal instructions, and 'spacing out'.  The "disorder" part of auditory processing disorder means that something is adversely affecting the processing or interpretation of the information. Children with auditory processing difficulty typically have normal hearing and intelligence. However, they have also been observed to:   have trouble paying attention to and remembering information presented orally, have problems carrying out multistep directions, have poor listening skills, need more time to process information, have low academic performance, have behavior problems, and have difficulty with reading, comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes the damage done to a child's brains when their mothers drink heavily during pregnancy. It is one of the leading forms of mental retardation. There is a more mild form of this disorder and it is called Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAE often don't look disabled (as do those with FAS), and they tend to score in the low-normal or even normal range of intelligence, but their mal-developed brains cause them to exhibit a wide range of behavior problems, including:   hyperactivity, attention problems, learning disorders, and ethical problems such as stealing, lying, and cheating.

Sometimes seizures can exhibit similar symptoms to ADD and ADHD.  Absence seizures, temporal lobe seizures, and post-traumatic subclinical seizures are a few forms that ofter overlooked when considering behavioral disorders.  During absence seizures, brain activity shuts down and the child may stare blankly, blink or twitch repetitively, drop objects, or appear to “space out”.  However it manifests, the attack typically last only for a few seconds.  Temporal lobe seizures can cause inappropriate behavior. Post-traumatic subclinical seizure disorder causes episodic fits of temper . These fits of temper come out of the blue for no reason.

Certain head injuries, such as post-concussion syndrome, may produce symptoms that include irritability, depression, mood swings, sleep disorders, and  memory problems.

There are mild forms of genetic disorders that can exhibit symptoms of ADD and ADHD.  The mild forms of Turner’s syndrome and Fragile X syndrome are just two examples.  Since many genetic diseases can disrupt brain functioning, they can cause hyperactivity and other behavioral problems.

Other possible causes of behavioral problems are:  Malnutrition (even in our society, due to lack of quality foods) , Vitamin B deficiencies, iron deficiency, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, viral or bacterial infections, and early-onset diabetes, to name a few.

External Causes
There are many toxins that can affect behavior, as well.  Certain toxins can cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, irritability, and learning problems.  Since children are more sensative than adults to levels of toxins, it is important to consider even the smallest amounts that may be encountered in their environment.  Some toxins that may trigger problems include:  pesticides (particularly in food), herbicides, gas fumes, cleaning disinfectants, furniture polishes, air fresheners, carpeting, bedding, and dusty homes.

Lead exposure and contamination is a leading cause of toxic hyperactivity.  The levels of lead can be barely detectable and will have different signs and symptoms than full lead poisoning.  There is much research that shows children with mildly elevated lead level in their system will suffer from reduced intelligence, have attention deficits, and will have reduced academic performance.

Mercury can cause symptoms of behavioral problems.  Sources of mercury include dental fillings and contaminated sea food (tuna).

Fluoride can also cause behavioral problems.  It can increase lead absorption as well.  While the debate over fluoride use continues, more and more evidence is beginning to surface on the harm that fluoride use can cause.  Fluoride use can also cause learning disabilities, hyperactivity, decreased fertility, bone loss, and reduced intelligence.  Fluoride is typically found in toothpastes, some water supplies, and dental treatments.  Do not believe the recommendations of a dentist when it comes to fluoride.

Over the counter medications, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs can all be harmful to the behavior.  Many of these drugs can actually cause brain atrophy (cause areas of the brain to shrink).  Of particular importance, is the harm that drugs used for ADD and ADHD can cause, in particular, Ritalin.  This is discussed in later articles.

Mental Causes

Emotional stress can be a key component to adverse behavior.  Emotional stress can effect anyone, at any age.  The source of emotional stress can come from any setting, schools and home as well.  Often times, the source can be being bullied, a divorce, a death (family or friend), or even abuse (mental, verbal, sexual).  A child experiencing stress may not know how to relate the problems or may not have anyone to confide in in order to work through their problems.  They may also have a lack of understanding or a lack of knowledge on how to properly express how they feel.  This problem can easily, and often does, translate into many symptoms of ADD and ADHD.

Many children who display defiant behavior may simply be spoiled or undisciplined.  In this case, the blame should not be placed entirely on the child.  Children need some structure and rules to learn self-discipline and proper manners when functioning in society. 

When it comes to a gifted child, they often become bored with school.  These types of children will have behaviors associated with lack of attention, boredom, daydreaming, low tolerance for irrelevant tasks, or may display overactiveness in order not to be bored.

The “cookie cutter” approach to teaching in schools may produce difficulties for many children.  There are many different styles to learning.  The way one child may learn is not necessarily the way another will learn.  Kinesthetic learners, hands on learners, visual learners, auditory learners, all have different styles on how they are able to retain information.  It is very difficult to force one learning style to conform to another.  This situation may mistakedly result in a child being labeled as ADD or ADHD.  Often times, a child may label themselves as “stupid”.  They may also be labeled by classmates or teachers as a result of their different learning style. No one learns the same way or at the same speed. 


Looking back at all of these possibilites for “abnormal” behavior, one can see why many professionals think that ADD and ADHD is a bogus, made-up diagnosis.  Some feel it is simply laziness.  Rather than label and medicate someone, why not rule out possible causes of behavioral issues?  In most cases it is a simple fix if one is willing to take the time to find the source of the problem.



Medical Field's Approach to ADD and ADHD

The medical field typically uses a symptom-based approach. The following is the medical field’s view on how to treat ADD and ADHD, not the view of this website.


-  The mainstay of treating ADD and ADHD include methylphenidate (Ritalin and Cocerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and pemoline (Cylert).
-  The amphetamine-dextroamphetamine combination Adderall is also used.
-   Bupropion (Wellbutrin), nortriptyline (Pamelor) or imipramine (Tofranil),   clonidine (Catapres) or guanfacine (Tenex), SSRIs (Luvox,  Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft), venlafaxine (Effexor), and risperidone (Risperdal).

Behavioral management (from Merck Manual):
Counseling, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (eg, goal-setting, self-monitoring, modeling, role-playing), is often effective and helps the child understand ADHD. Structure and routines are essential.

Classroom behavior is often improved by environmental control of noise and visual stimulation, appropriate task length, novelty, coaching, and teacher proximity.

When difficulties persist at home, parents should be encouraged to seek additional professional assistance and training in behavior management techniques. Adding incentives and token rewards reinforces behavior management and is often effective. Children with ADHD in whom hyperactivity and poor impulse control predominate are often helped at home when structure, consistent parenting techniques, and well-defined limits are established.

Elimination diets, megavitamin treatments, use of antioxidants or other compounds, and nutritional and biochemical interventions (eg, administration of petrochemicals) have had the least effect. The value of biofeedback is unsubstantiated. Most studies have shown minimal change in behavior and no sustained benefit.

Medical View:

Stimulant medications are the most clinically and cost effective method of treating ADHD. A recent meta analysis has found that the use of stimulants improve teachers' and parents' ratings of disruptive behavior; however they do not improve academic achievement. They also have no effect on the incidence of delinquency or substance abuse at 3 years.  No significant differences between the various drugs in terms of efficacy or side effects has been found.



Why the Medical Approach Can be Dangerous

Why is the medical approach dangerous and an incorrect way to treat ADD and ADHD?  Basically, because it is a symptom-based approach.  Rather than searching for the cause of an individual’s problem, they just medically treat the symptoms.  Suppressing symptoms with dangerous medications does not take care of the root cause.  An individual, holistic approach it what needs to be taken for each person.

Let’s look at the medical approach to treatment of ADD/ADHD and point out its dangers. First and foremost, the side effects of these medications used in treating ADD/ADHD must be looked at.  The following give a list of side effects for each medication used to treat ADD and ADHD. (PDR = Physician’s Desk Reference)

Methylphenidate (Ritalin and Cocerta) –  Entire books have been written about Ritalin and its dangers.  Ritalin - Anorexia, diarrhea, fever, headache, inability to fall or stay asleep, nervousness, runny nose, sore throat.  Special warnings about Ritalin:  There is no information regarding the safety and effectiveness of long-term treatment in children. However, suppression of growth has been seen with the long-term use of stimulants.  More information about Ritalin is in the following articles. 

Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) - Excessive restlessness, overstimulation, hyperactivity, irritability, personality changes, schizophrenia-like thoughts and behavior, severe insomnia, and severe skin disease.  Special warnings about this medication:  Be aware that one of the inactive ingredients in Dexedrine is a yellow food coloring called tartrazine (Yellow No. 5). Read about tartrazine in the following articles.  Dexedrine may impair judgment or coordination.  There is some concern that Dexedrine may stunt a child's growth. (more in PDR)

Pemoline (Cylert) - Cylert was used to treat ADD/ADHD for 30 years before it was banned by the FDA (Federal Drug Administration) in October 2005.  In October 2005, the FDA issued a formal ban on the product, concluding that the risk of liver damage was greater than the benefit of treating ADD/ADHD.

Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine combination (Adderall)- Depression, dry mouth, heart attack, high blood pressure, hives, impotence, overstimulation, rapid or pounding heartbeat, seizures, stomach and intestinal disturbances, stroke, sudden death, weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, fever, infection (including viral), insomnia, loss of appetite, mood swings, nausea, nervousness, vomiting, and weakness. (more in PDR)

Bupropion (Wellbutrin) - Agitation, constipation, dizziness, dry mouth, excessive sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, sleep disturbances, tremor, abdominal pain, anxiety, diarrhea, heart palpitations, increased urination, insomnia, muscle soreness, ringing in the ears, and sore throat.  Special warnings about Wellbutrin:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders. (more in PDR)

Nortriptyline (Pamelor) -  Anxiety, blurred vision, confusion, dry mouth, hallucinations, heart attack or vascular heart blockage, heartbeat irregularities, high blood pressure, insomnia, loss of muscle coordination, low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sensitivity to sunlight, skin rash, stroke, tremors, weight loss, headache, nausea, vague feeling of bodily discomfort.  Special warnings about Pamelor:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders.  (more in PDR)

Imipramine (Tofranil) -  Breast development in males, breast enlargement in females, breast milk production, confusion, diarrhea, dry mouth, hallucinations, hives, high blood pressure, low blood pressure upon standing, nausea, numbness, tremors, vomiting, nervousness, sleep disorders, stomach and intestinal problems, tiredness, anxiety, collapse, constipation, convulsions, emotional instability, and fainting.  Special warnings about Tofranil:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders.  (more in PDR)

Clonidine (Catapres) -  Agitation, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, fatigue, impotence, loss of sex drive, nausea, nervousness, sedation (calm), vomiting, weakness.  Special warnings about Catapres:  Catapres should not be stopped suddenly. Headache, nervousness, agitation, tremor, confusion, and rapid rise in blood pressure can occur. Severe reactions such as disruption of brain functions, stroke, fluid in the lungs, and death have also been reported. (more in PDR)

Guanfacine (Tenex) – difficulty breathing, closing of your throat, swelling (of your lips, tongue, or face), hives, depression, very slow heart rate (fewer than 60 beats per minute) unusually high or low blood pressure (fainting, a severe headache, flushing of your face),  unusual fatigue, dizziness, or tiredness, headache, dry mouth, constipation, insomnia,  constipation, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. (more inPDR)

Fluvoxamine (Luvox) -  Abnormal ejaculation, agitation, anxiety, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, headache, indigestion, insomnia, nausea, nervousness, sleepiness, sweating, tremor, vomiting, weakness, weight loss.  Special warnings about Fluvoxamine:  In clinical studies, SSRI antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders.(more in PDR)

Paroxetine hydrochloride (Paxil) –  Abnormal ejaculation, abnormal orgasm, constipation, decreased appetite, decreased sex drive, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, gas, impotence, male and female genital disorders, nausea, nervousness, sleeplessness, sweating, tremor, weakness, and vertigo.  Special warnings about Paxil:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders. (more in PDR)

Fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac) – Abnormal dreams, abnormal ejaculation, abnormal vision, anxiety, diarrhea, diminished sex drive, dizziness, dry mouth, flu-like symptoms, flushing, gas, headache, impotence, insomnia, itching, loss of appetite, nausea, nervousness, rash, sex-drive changes, sinusitis, sleepiness, sore throat, sweating, tremors, upset stomach, vomiting, weakness, and yawning.  Special warnings about Prozac:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders. (more in PDR)

Sertraline (Zoloft) -  Zoloft may trigger the grandiose, inappropriate, out-of-control behavior called mania or the similar, but less dramatic, "hyper" state called hypomania.  Typical side effects include:  Abdominal pain, agitation, anxiety, constipation, decreased sex drive, diarrhea or loose stools, difficulty with ejaculation, dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, gas, headache, decreased appetite, increased sweating, indigestion, insomnia, nausea, nervousness, pain, rash, sleepiness, sore throat, tingling or pins and needles, tremor, vision problems, and vomiting.  Special warnings about Zoloft:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders. (more is PDR)

Venlafaxine (Effexor) – Abnormal dreams, abnormal ejaculation/orgasm, anxiety, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, dry mouth, impotence, insomnia, nausea, nervousness, sleepiness, sweating, tremor, vomiting, weakness, and weight loss.  Special warnings about Effexor:  In clinical studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders.  (more is PDR)

Risperidone (Risperdal) - Agitation, anxiety, constipation, dizziness, hallucination, headache, indigestion, insomnia, rapid or irregular heartbeat, restlessness, runny nose, sleepiness, vomiting, and weight change.  Special warnings about Risperdal:  Risperdal may cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), a condition marked by muscle stiffness or rigidity, fast heartbeat or irregular pulse, increased sweating, high fever, confusion, dulled pain, falling/physical instability, and high or low blood pressure. Unchecked, this condition can prove fatal.  (more in PDR)

The side effects of each medication are enough to warrant close examination of the medical field’s view on the treatment of ADD/ADHD.  The medical field claims that the use of these drugs is to correct the “chemical imbalance” is those with behavior disorders.  This is in the face of no test to measure an imbalance and no evidence that there is even an imbalance to begin with.

When it comes to behavioral management, the field’s lack of individualistic treatment also requires examination.  For example, one of the advised approaches is to have “structure and routine”.  This is not advisable for every case.  As a matter of fact, in most cases, “structure and routine” is one of the main causes of there behavioral disorder.

In the previous article, the medical text “Merck Manual” states that “Elimination diets, megavitamin treatments, use of antioxidants or other compounds, and nutritional and biochemical interventions (eg, administration of petrochemicals) have had the least effect. The value of biofeedback is unsubstantiated. Most studies have shown minimal change in behavior and no sustained benefit.”  This is an absolute falsehood.  It only shows the lack in understanding of physiology, biochemistry, and nutrition that so plagues the medical field. The final statement by the “Merck Manual” says, “Stimulant medications are the most clinically and cost effective method of treating ADHD”.  Again, this is not true.  The natural, holistic approach has been found to be the most effective and successful method when it comes to ADD and ADHD.



A Special Look at Ritalin

As stated in a previous article, there have been entire books written on the subject of Ritalin. It would be advisable to read any book on the subject before subjecting anyone to these kinds of medication.  There is a helpful link on this page to one of the said books.

Ritalin, and drugs like it, pose many health concerns. Ritalin (methylphenidate) is classified among Schedule II controlled substances, which have a high abuse potential.   Ritalin belongs to the same class of Schedule II drugs which include amphetamine (Dexedrine), cocaine, morphine, codeine, opium, oxycodone (Percodan), pentobarbital, and others.

 Adverse reactions are not often reported, but of the ones that have been reported, the statistics showed that from 1999 to 2000 about 570 children were hospitalized due to their use of Ritalin.  Of those 750 hospitalized, 186 died from its use and 38 had serious life-threatening reactions.

Ritalin and its related amphetamine-like drugs used to treat ADD/ADHD saw a 500% increase in prescriptions written in the past 10 years. A study reported by Ambulatory Pediatrics Journal (March/April 2002;2) said that the proportion of amphetamine-like drug prescription grew from about 24 per 1,000 kids to 30 per 1,000, in that year alone.

These alarming statistics bring us to one of the major concerns with the use of Ritalin.  There has been an argument over the development of chromosomal abnormalities tied to the use of Ritalin.  Some studies link Ritalin use to chromosomal changes and other studies find it “unlikely”.  Why the discrepancy?  The answer is money.  Well, indirectly anyway.  Ritalin sales are a huge source of income for its manufacturers and prescribers.  It is important to check the source of funding behind each study.  Of course, a study funded by pharmaceutical companies will have a biased outcome in their favor, even if it means misrepresenting the outcome of the study.  Those studies with no vested interest or “special funding” will have a more honest non-biased results.

One such study that found a link between Ritalin use and chromosomal abnormalities was conducted in Texas.  Researchers at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston found that after just three months, every one of a dozen children treated for ADD/ADHD with the drug methylphenidate (Ritalin) experienced a threefold increase in levels of chromosome abnormality occurrences.  These chromosomal abnormalities are associated with increased risks of cancer and other adverse health effects.  The lead author of the study, Randa A. El-Zein, M.D.,Ph.D., said that “most of the abnormalities found in the studied blood cells consisted of chromosome breaks and a higher frequency of aberrations”, this lead doctor also said that these aberrations are “reported to be associated with an increased risk of cancer, down the line”.  Dr. El-Zein also said that “It was pretty surprising that all of the children taking methylphenidate (Ritalin) showed an increase in chromosome abnormalities in a relatively short period of time”.  Professor of Environmental Toxicology Marvin Legator, the study’s principal investigator and senior author said that “this study doesn’t mean that these kids are going to get cancer, but it does mean they are exposed to an additional risk factor”.  “Of the 53 known human carcinogens, 48 could be detected using the chromosome analysis methods employed in this study”, Legator went on to say.   The results of this study were reported in the journal “Cancer Letters”.

Given all the information about drugs used to treat ADD/ADHD, is this really a good option?  Even if the Duke University and the National Institute of Health conducted a study that found that it is “unlikely” that Ritalin causes chromosomal abnormalities, shouldn’t there be more HUMAN studies done before subjecting children to potentially dangerous medications?

Did you know that may affect other areas of a child’s life?  According to some military sources, a child who has used Ritalin (and/or other psychostimulants) past the age of 12, may not be able to join any branch of the military forces until a doctor verifies that the person has been without use of these medications for at least four years.  Also, a child who has used Ritalin (and/or other psychostimulants) cannot work for the state or federal government, if the job has access to state secrets or national security issues. 

It is of extreme importance to know what you are medicating your child with, be it for health related reasons or any other reason that may potentially affect them later in life.